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    Bahrain Bay development
    Bahrain's area is growing. The Bahrain Bay development is built on reclaimed land. The Four Seasons Hotel Bahrain takes center stage, the United Tower (Twisting Tower) to the right.
    Image: Urban Planning & Development Authority

    Location map of Bahrain. Where in the Middle East is Bahrain?
    Location map of Bahrain
    Bahrain Flag
    Flag of Bahrain

    Destination Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain, a Nations Online country profile of the island nation in the Persian Gulf.

    The island state is situated east of Saudi Arabia and north of Qatar. The archipelago consists of the main island Al Bahrayn and some smaller islands and islets. The King Fahd Causeway, a series of bridges and causeways, connects Bahrain with the Arabian Peninsula. The kingdom shares maritime borders with Iran, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia.

    The small island nation covers an area of 780 km2, making it slightly larger than Singapore (699 km2), or 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC.

    Bahrain has a population of 1,5 million people (in 2018), including more than 800,000 non-nationals (53%). Most of the population lives in the northern part of the main island. The capital and largest city is Manama.
    The spoken language is Arabic. Bahrain is a country with a predominantly Muslim population, with about 70% Shia and 30% Sunni Muslims.

    What is Bahrain known for?

    Bahrain is known for being an island with a subtropical climate, desert vegetation, lots of sand, date palms, and camels, the Tree of Life (Prosopis cineraria), and the Mountain of Smoke (Jabal al Dukhan). Bahrain has an ethnically diverse population, a Dilmun heritage, a pearl diving and trading tradition, and it was one of the largest cemeteries in the ancient world.
    The country is in the petroleum and aluminum business and practices Islamic banking. Leisure activities include Formula One, camel and horse racing.
    The country boasts the largest underwater theme park in the world, and has one of the world's largest single-site aluminum smelter.
    Bahrain is also known for the Bahraini uprising of 2011 and a controversial human rights record.

    Kingdom of Bahrain | Al Bahrayn | ???????

    Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center.
    The new amir, installed in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of the amir's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa proclaimed himself king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.

    The United States established diplomatic relations with Bahrain in 1971 following its independence from the United Kingdom. The U.S. Embassy in Manama was opened on 21 September 1971, and a resident ambassador was sent in 1974. The U.S. designated Bahrain a major Non-NATO Ally in 2002. The U.S. maintains two US Military Bases in Bahrain.

    In 2001, the International Court of Justice awarded the Hawar Islands, long disputed with Qatar, to Bahrain.
    (Source: CIA - The World Factbook and United States Department of State)

    other Gulf States: Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

    Bahrain is a member of the League of Arab States.


    Country Profile

    Official Name:
    Mamlakat al Bahrayn
    short form: Al Bahrayn
    int'l long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
    int'l short form: Bahrain

    ISO Country Code: bh, BHR

    Local Time = UTC +3h
    Actual Time: Mon-Nov-9  07:26

    Country Calling Code: +973

    Capital City: Manama (pop. 148 000)

    Other Cities: Al Muharraq

    ...show more

    Official Sites of Bahrain

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    The future Sakhir Conference Center
    The future Sakhir Conference Center, to be built on the Al Sakhir Palace premises, will primarily house Gulf Cooperation Council meetings.
    Image: Gulf House Engineering

    Political System of Bahrain

    The country is a constitutional hereditary monarchy, ruled by the House of Khalifa since the 18th century. The Sunni Khalifa family rules over a Shia majority population.
    The chief of state is the king, and the head of government is the prime minister. Since 1973 Bahrain has an elected legislative assembly; it consists of the Council of Representatives (the lower house) and the royally-appointed members of the Consultative Council (the upper house).
    Bahrain is a member of the League of Arab States (Arab League) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

    Government of Bahrain

    Bahrain E-Government page.

    Bahrain National Council
    The Shura Council building Bahrain
    Members entrance of the Shura Council, the upper house of Bahrain's National Assembly.
    Image: Shura Council

    Bahrain's National Council (assembly) is composed of the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council.

    Council of Representatives
    The Council of Representatives is the lower house of the Bahrain's National Assembly.

    Shura Council
    The Shura Council, also known as the Consultative Council, is the upper house of the country's National Assembly.

    Bahrain Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for coordinating and implementing all matters related to the nation's foreign policy.
    The ministry's web page also provides a list of Bahrain Embassies abroad, and foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited to Bahrain.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Bahrain Permanent Mission to the United Nations
    Bahrain's Permanent Mission to the UN.
    Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the US
    Washington D.C. - USA

    Bahrain Open Data Portal
    Bahrain in figures.

    HRH the Crown Prince receives senior officials and members of the Council of Representatives and Shura Council.
    HRH the Crown Prince receives senior officials and members of the Council of Representatives and the Shura Council.
    Image: Court of the Crown Prince


    Maps of Bahrain

    Bahrain archipelago map
    Map of Bahrain (click map to enlarge)
    Image: ? nationsonline.org


    Map of Bahrain
    Political Map of Bahrain.

    Google Earth Google Earth Map Bahrain
    Searchable map and satellite view of Bahrain.

    Google Earth Google Earth Map Manama
    Searchable map and satellite view of Bahrain's capital city.

    Map of the Arabian Peninsula 
    Political Map of the Arabian Peninsula.
    Map of the Persian Gulf
    Political Map of the Persian Gulf.
    Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
    Political Map of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Middle East.
    profile Map of Western Asia
    Map of South Western Asia and the Middle East region.
    profile Map of Asia
    Reference Map of Asia.


    News of Bahrain

    Bahrain Newsstand

    Online News from Bahrain

    According to RSF, Bahrain is notorious for jailing many journalists, especially photographers and cameramen. Fear that the regime could be overthrown led to an increase in the persecution and censorship of dissidents from 2011 onwards.

    Bahrain News Agency
    The Bahrain News Agency is a state-run enterprise.

    Akhbar Al Khaleej
    A Bahraini daily.

    Bahrain News (in Arabic)

    Al Bilad
    Arabic daily newspaper published in Bahrain.

    Arabic-language daily broadsheet published in Manama.

    Pro-government daily newspaper, published in Manama.

    Bahrain Mirror
    Independent Bahraini online newspaper (in Arabic and English)

    Bahrain Tribune
    English-language daily newspaper in Bahrain.

    Gulf Digital News
    "The Voice of Bahrain" is an English-language local newspaper.

    International News sources

    Al Jazeera
    Bahrain related news.

    The Guardian (UK)
    Bahrain related news.


    Arts & Culture of Bahrain

    Riffa Fort (Shaikh Salman bin Ahmed Fort), Bahrain
    Riffa Fort (Shaikh Salman bin Ahmed Fort) in the Hunanaiya valley in the center of the island was built in 1812.
    Image: Alawadhi3000

    Arts & Culture

    Bahrain Authority for Culture and Antiquities
    The authority oversees the culture and tourism sectors in Bahrain.

    Bahrain Arts Society
    The non-profit cultural organization shows some artworks made by Bahrain artists.

    Bahrain International Circuit
    Location of the Bahrain Formula 1 Grand Prix.

    Bahrain Horse Racing
    The Bahrain Horse Racing Affairs Directorate.

    Bahrain National Museum
    The island's main cultural landmark shows exhibits of Bahrain's 6000 years of history.

    Bahrain Historical & Archaeological Society - E Library

    Official website of the Bahrain History and Antiquities Association.

    Horse racing Bahrain
    Horses have always been part of the Bahraini culture, and horse racing is a popular leisure activity in the kingdom. All races are broadcast live on Bahrain TV..
    Image: albasmelter



    Business & Economy of Bahrain

    Alba, one of the largest aluminium smelters in the world, is located in Bahrain
    Alba is one of the largest aluminum smelters in the world; it spread across an area that's roughly 3.5 km2.
    Image: albasmelter

    Economy of Bahrain
    Bahrain has a mixed economy, with government control of many basic industries. Petroleum and natural gas are the only significant natural resources. Bahrain was one of the first states in the Gulf to discover oil and to build a refinery.
    Since the end of the 20th century, Bahrain has invested heavily in the banking and (medical) tourism sectors, but the country remains heavily dependent on oil and gas. Oil still comprises 85% of Bahraini budget revenues.
    The top exports of Bahrain are refined and crude petroleum, raw aluminum, and iron ore.

    Bahrain Chamber of Commerce and Industry
    Official website of the chamber.

    Major Companies in Bahrain

    Banking and Financial Services
    Eight of the top 10 companies in Bahrain are in Banking and Financial Services.

    Central Bank of Bahrain
    The CBB, formerly known as the Bahrain Monetary Agency, is responsible for maintaining monetary and financial stability in the kingdom.

    Bahrain Stock Exchange
    The Bahrain Bourse is the stock exchange of Bahrain.

    Ahli United Bank
    Ahli United Bank is the largest bank in Bahrain.
    Al Salam Bank Bahrain
    Al Salam Bank is an Islamic bank headquartered in Manama.
    Arab Banking Corporation
    Bank ABC provides commercial and investment banking services.
    Arcapita Bank, based in Manama, offers investment banking and asset management.
    The Bank of Bahrain and Kuwait provides financial and investment services.
    GFH Financial Group
    GFH, previously known as Gulf Finance House, is a Bahrain based Islamic investment bank.
    Investcorp is an international provider of alternative investment products.
    National Bank of Bahrain
    NBB was the first local bank in Bahrain.
    United Gulf Holding Company B.S.C.
    UGH offers investment and commercial banking products and services.

    Bahrain Telecommunications Company
    Batelco is the primary telecommunications company in Bahrain.

    Aluminium Bahrain B.S.C. (Alba)
    ALBA is one of the world's largest aluminum smelter.
    Bahrain Petroleum Company
    BAPCO is the national oil company of Bahrain.

    Gulf Air
    The national airline of the kingdom.

    Bahrain International Airport
    The country's international airport is located on the island of Muharraq, which borders the capital Manama.

    Bahrain Public Transport Company
    Bahrain bus network.


    Tourism in Bahrain

    Al Fateh Grand Mosque in Manama, Bahrain
    Al-Fatih Grand Mosque in Manama, an Islamic center and the largest mosque in Bahrain.
    Image: Ciacho5

    Destination Bahrain - Travel and Tour Guides


    Discover Bahrain:
    Arabic Coffee & Hospitality, the Souks, Siyadi House, Al-Khamis Mosque, Bahrain Fort, Barbar Temple, Bahrain Heritage Center, Bait Al Qur'an, Arad Fort, Shaikh Isa's House, Tree of Life, Riffa Fort, Oil Museum.

    Bahrain Tourism and Exhibitions Authority
    All things Bahrain tourism.

    Wikivoyage Bahrain
    Travel guide page from Wikivoyage about Bahrain.



    UNESCO World Heritage Sites

    Tumuli of the Madinat Hamad Necropolis, Bahrain
    Tumuli of the Madinat Hamad Necropolis.
    Image: Think Heritage Author: Melanie Münzner

    UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Bahrain
    There are three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Bahrain, and six sites are on the Tentative List (see the List)

    World Heritage Site Dilmun Burial Mounds
    The tombs of the Dilmun culture are a group of burial mounds built on the island of Bahrain during the Bronze Age.

    World Heritage Site Pearling, Testimony of an Island Economy
    Three oyster beds in Bahrain's northern waters are now known as the Bahrain Pearling Trail or Bahrain Pearling Pathway, a serial cultural heritage site. The site is the last remaining complete example of the cultural tradition of pearling.

    World Heritage Site Qal’at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun
    Qal’at al-Bahrain is an artificial mound created by many successive layers of human occupation since 2300 BC. Dilmun was one of the oldest civilizations in the Middle East; its urban center was an important trading port in the Gulf region for centuries.


    Education in Bahrain

    Entrance to the American University of Bahrain
    American University of Bahrain.
    Image: AUBH

    American University of Bahrain
    The first American-style co-educational university in the kingdom. AUBH is situated in Riffa.

    Arabian Gulf University
    The University for the Arabian Gulf region in Manama. Entry into the university is restricted to GCC nationals.

    Bahrain Polytechnic
    Bahrain Polytechnic is a government-owned tertiary education institute located in Isa Town.

    Gulf University
    Official website of the Gulf University, a private university located in Sanad, Bahrain.

    University of Bahrain
    The University of Bahrain is the largest public university in the country; it operates campuses in Isa Town, Manama, and Sakhir.



    Environment & Nature

    Manama skyline as viewed from Juffair
    Skyline of Manama, the country's capital, as seen from Juffair, a suburban neighborhood of the city.
    Image: Wadiia

    Environmental Management
    Industrialization combined with the population increase has brought major pressures on the land area of Bahrain. There has been a considerable reclamation of land from the sea which caused blocking of natural drainage channels killing date palm trees, effecting mangrove swamps and stopping the flow of natural springs. The rapid industrialization has brought stress on the environment and other natural resources. While the primary aim of the new economic policy is to accelerate industrial development, improve operational efficiency and competitiveness, enhance exports, and induce greater foreign investments, inevitably will have both positive and negative environmental consequences. [1]

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs about Bahrain's environment.

    Supreme Council for Environment
    The Supreme Council for Environment (SCE) in Bahrain is a government agency in charge of the development of Bahrain's future strategy for the environment and sustainable development.

    Alreem Environmental Site
    Bahrain's first national environmental consultancy office provides different services in the field of environment.



    Bahrain History

    Panoramic view of the Bahrain Fort.
    Panoramic view of Qal?at al-Bahrain, also known as the Bahrain Fort. The lowest layers of the complex date from around 2200 BC and belong to an urban complex of the Dilmun culture. The archaeological excavation site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2005.
    Image: Jacobs

    History of Bahrain (1783–1971) - Wikipedia
    The History of Bahrain (1783–1971) covers the history of Bahrain since the invasion of Al Khalifa until the independence from the British Empire. Bahrain was a dependency of the Persian Empire, when in 1783, the Bani Utbah tribe, led by Al Khalifa, invaded it from their base in Al Zubarah (Qatar).

    History of Bahrain
    Wikipedia entry for the history of Bahrain.

    Encyclop?dia Britannica article about Bahrain, including history.

    Bahrain Historical and Archaeological Society
    Official website of the Bahrain Historical and Archaeological Society.


    Additional Information


    Amnesty International: Bahrain
    Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

    BBC News Country Profile: Bahrain
    Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

    BTI Transformation Index
    Bahrain Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

    FreedomHouse Bahrain
    The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

    GlobalEDGE: Bahrain
    Bahrain ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

    The Heritage Foundation: Bahrain
    The Heritage Foundation index of Economic Freedom.

    Human Rights Watch: Bahrain
    HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

    OEC: Bahrain
    The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

    Reporters Without Borders: Bahrain
    RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

    UNDP - Human Development Indicators: Bahrain
    United Nations Development Programme page for Bahrain.

    Wikipedia: Bahrain
    Wikipedia Bahrain page in many languages.

    Worldbank Data: Bahrain
    World Development Indicators database.

    The World Factbook -- Bahrain
    CIA World Factbook Bahrain Page.




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