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    Niagara River and Niagara Falls, Bridal Veil (USA) and Horseshoe Falls (partly in Canada)
    The Niagara River drains Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, on its way it has a vertical drop of more than 165 feet (50 m) this is known as the Niagara Falls, here seen from Skylon Tower, left: Bridal Veil (USA) and on the right side Horseshoe Falls (partly in Canada).
    Image: Wladyslaw

    ___ Canada

    Canada Flag
    Flag of Canada
    Canada location map. Where in the world is Canada?
    Location map of Canada

    Destination Canada, the second largest country in the world occupies most of the northern part of North America, covering the vast land area from the United States in south to the Arctic Circle in the north. It is a country of enormous distances and rich natural resources.

    Long time part of colonial North America, Canada became a self-governing colony in the mid 19th century (1867) while retaining ties to the British crown.

    Canada is bordered by Alaska (USA) in west, and by 12 US states of the continental United States in south, the country shares maritime borders with Greenland (an autonomous territory of Denmark) and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an island which belongs to France.

    Map of Hudson Bay
    Hudson Bay, the large shallow inland sea indenting east-central Canada.

    Canada's landscape offers a wide range of natural sceneries and is divided into multiple geographical regions. The Canadian Shield, which is the largest geographical area, encompasses half the country and centers on Hudson Bay. The southeastern region of Canada is dominated by lowlands, bordered by the Great Lakes: Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

    The country occupies an area of 9,984,670 km2, making it the largest country in the Western Hemisphere. Compared it is slightly larger than the US, or 18 times the size of France.

    36.3 million people (in 2017) live in the country, this is about 10% of the population of neighboring USA. Capital city is Ottawa, largest city is Toronto, spoken languages are English and French.

    Canada | Canadá | Kanada

    Country Profile

    The vast land in Northern North America is rich of natural resources, home to 41 national parks and hundreds of provincial parks, Canada is a natural playground!

    The United Nations ranked Canada one of the best country in the world in which to live. Canada is globally recognized for its outstanding quality of life, stable, progressive political environment and one of the healthiest economies in the world. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border.

    related countries: France, United Kingdom

    Official Name:

    ISO Country Code: ca, can

    Actual Time:
    Halifax, : Wed-Nov-11  06:53
    Local Time = UTC -4h
    Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa, Iqaluit: Wed-Nov-11  05:53
    Local Time = UTC -5h
    Winnipeg: Wed-Nov-11  04:53
    Local Time = UTC -6h
    Calgary, Yellowknife: Wed-Nov-11  03:53
    Local Time = UTC -7h
    Vancouver: Wed-Nov-11  02:53
    Local Time = UTC -8h
    Map of Canada's time zone anomalies.

    Country Calling Code: +1

    Capital City: Ottawa (pop. 1 million)

    Other Cities:
    Toronto (4.5 million), Montreal (3.4 million), Vancouver (2.0 million), Calgary (1 million), Quebec (500.000)

    Type: Confederation with parliamentary democracy.
    Independence:1 July 1867 (from the UK).
    Constitution: The amended British North America Act of 1867 patriated to Canada on
    17 April 1982, Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and unwritten custom. (Constitution Act of 1982)

    Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
    Area: 9.9 million km² (3.8 million sq. mi.); second-largest country in the world.

    Terrain: as vast as the country is, it offers many different landscapes, mountains, prairies, deserts, artic tundra, glaciers, valleys, foothills, rivers and lakes.

    Climate: Varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north.

    Nationality: Noun and adjective--Canadian(s).
    Population: 36.3 million (2017)
    GNI per capita PPP: $ 34 444 (year)
    Ethnic groups: British descent (28%), French descent (23%), Italian descent (3%), aboriginal peoples (2%), plus significant minorities of German, Ukrainian, Dutch, Greek, Polish and Chinese.
    Religions: Religion: Catholic (45%), Protestant (36%) and minorities from most of the world's major religions.
    Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), and 53 native languages.
    Literacy: 97-99% of population aged 15 and over.

    Natural resources: Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower.

    Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish.

    Industries: Transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas.

    Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

    Exports partners: USA 76.7% (2015)

    Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

    Imports partners:
    USA 53.1%, China 12.2%, Mexico 5.8% (2015)

    Currency: Canadian Dollar (CAD)

    Canada in numbers
    Canada key statistical figures.

    Centre Block and the Library of Parliament, Ottawa
    View of the Centre Block and the Peace Tower, the main building of the Canadian parliament (right) and the Library of Parliament (left) on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario.

    Image: DXR

    Political System
    Canada's political system is a federal parliamentary representative democracy with a formal constitutional monarchy. Chief of State is the British monarch (Queen Elizabeth II) represented by the Governor General, who is appointed by the monarch. Theoretically, the executive power lies with the monarch, but in practice, the monarch and his representative are apolitical and predominantly perform ceremonial functions. Head of Government is the Canadian Prime Minister (Justin Trudeau). The Parliament of Canada consists of three parts, the sovereign, represented by the Governor-General of Canada, the Senate (Upper House), and the House of Commons.

    Official Sites of Canada

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    Government of Canada
    The Official Canada Government Site.

    Governor General
    Represents The Queen (Queen Elizabeth II) who is the Head of State.

    Government of Canada Departments and Agencies
    Index of Government of Canada Departments, Agencies, Crown Corporations, Special Operating Agencies and various affiliated organizations.

    Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
    Homepage of the Department.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations
    Information about Canada's Permanent Mission to the UN.
    Canadian Embassy
    Embassy of Canada in Washington.
    Consulate General of Canada in New York
    Canadian Embassies and Missions worldwide
    Address List of Canadian Diplomatic Missions Abnroad.
    Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Canada
    Address List of Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited to Canada.
    Canada's International Gateway
    Links to government services, information and resources, for citizens of other countries.

    Statistics Canada
    Canadian statistics and more.

    Environment Canada
    Official Canadian Weather.


    Map of Canada
    Administrative Map of Canada with international borders,
    provincial boundaries, provincial capitals, major cities, and major airports.

    Google Earth Google Earth Map Canada
    Searchable map and satellite view of Canada.
    Google Earth Google Earth Map Ottawa
    Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's capital city.
    Google Earth Google Earth Map Calgary
    Searchable map and satellite view of Calgary City.
    Google Earth Google Earth Map Montreal
    Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's second largest city.
    Google Earth Google Earth Map Quebec
    Searchable map and satellite view of Quebec City.
    Google Earth Google Earth Map Toronto
    Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's largest city.
    Google Earth Google Earth Map Vancouver
    Searchable map and satellite view of Canada's third largest city.

    Map of North America
    Reference Map of North America. 

    More Maps:
    Map of Canada
    Interactive political map of Canada.
    Canada Relief map
    Interactive relief map of Canada.
    Canadian Geographic Enterprises
    Canada à la carte - various theme maps by the Canadian Geographic Magazine.

    The National Atlas of Canada
    Geography and Maps of Canada
    Natural Hazards of Canada
    Depicts the locations, types and magnitudes of significant natural disasters that have affected Canada.
    Topographic Maps of Canada
    Clickable maps to Canada's topography.

    Canadian Geographical Names
    Interactive and authoritative source of over 350 000 official and formerly official geographical names in Canada.

    Canada's Senate chamber
    Canada's Senate chamber in the Centre Block on Parliament Hill, in center the three thrones, for the Canadian monarch, the consort of the monarch, and the Speaker of the Senate.
    Image: ? Saffron Blaze

    News from Canada

    Cananada Newswire
    Canadian News Agency.
    Canadian Newspaper Association
    With "The Ultimate Guide to (Canadian) Newspapers".
    The Canadian Press
    Canada's national news and photo wire.
    Canada news, sports, entertainment.
    The Globe and Mail
    News, information, commentary and interactive discussion
    from Canada and around the world.
    Politics Watch - Canada's Political Portal
    Provides political background information.
    The Toronto Star
    National and International News.

    Cable Public Affairs Channel - cpac
    Canada's Political Channel.
    CBC - Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
    Canada's national public broadcaster.
    Science, news, music & more.
    CBC News
    Canada's Online News Resource.
    CBC Radio
    Listen to CBC Radio, Canada's National Broadcaster.
    "CTV Inc. is Canada's pre-eminent broadcast communications company". CTV News
    Current news from Canada and the world.
    Radio Canada International
    Canadas Voice to the World.
    Radio Canada Nouvelles
    Canada News (in French)

    Online News
    Canadian related portal with news. Canada.com is owned and operated by Postmedia Network Inc., Canada’s largest publisher by circulation of paid English-language daily newspapers.

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    Haie-Architecturama installation by Sébastien Bilodeau
    Haie, an immersive installation by Sébastien Bilodeau from Architecturama, invites passers-by to walk through a labyrinth of six luminous panels.
    Image: Jean Gagnon

    Arts & Culture

    __Contemporary and Fine Arts

    Art Gallery of Ontario
    The eighth largest art museum in North America presents 1000 years of extraordinary art.
    Canada Council for the Arts - Le conseil des arts du Canada
    An agency which fosters the development of the arts in Canada through grants, services and awards. (Canadian artists only)
    McMichael Canadian Art Collection
    Paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints by First Nations, Inuit and contemporary Canadian artists.
    Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
    Fine Arts collections.
    Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal
    Contemporary Québec art and international contemporary art.
    National Gallery of Canada
    Musée des Beaux-Arts du Canada.
    Vancouver Art Gallery
    Contemporary art.


    CBC Arts
    A guide to cultural events by CBC.
    broken pencil
    The guide to alternative culture in Canada.
    Images Canada
    Picturing Canadian Culture.
    Radio-Canada.ca - Zone Culture
    A spot on cultural events (in French)
    Well Known People Who Happen to be Canadian
    Canadian Celebs.


    Canlit - Canadian Literature Archive
    Information about Canadian writers, novelists, poets, playwrights, essayists, Canadian literary organizations, magazines, publications, texts and library archives.

    National Archives of Canada
    Canada's archival heritage.
    The National Library of Canada
    National Library of Canada Home Page.


    Canada Aviation Museum
    Airplanes from the Pioneer Era until Post-1960.
    Canadian Museum of Civilization
    Virtual Museum of Canada's Civilization.
    Canadian Museum of Nature
    More than a natural history museum.
    Museum of Anthropology MOA
    Objects and expressions of human creativity.
    Museum of Civilization in Quebec City
    Site of the Human Adventure.
    Royal British Columbia Museum
    The human and natural history of British Columbia.
    Royal Ontario Museum
    The ROM will inspire wonder and build understanding of human cultures and the natural world.
    Royal Tyrrell Museum
    Canadian dinosaurs.
    Textile Museum of Canada
    The permanent collection contains more than 10 000 textiles and spans almost 2 000 years and 190 world regions.
    Virtual Museum of New France
    History of the French exploration of North America.

    Virtual Museum of Canada
    A Guide to Canadian Museums and Galleries and other cultural institutions.


    Business & Economy

    Canada is among the world's wealthiest nations, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Seven (G7). The backbone of Canada's economy is the service industry, which employs about three quarters of the country's workforce. Other major economic bases are the logging and oil industries, and the manufacturing sector with its automobile and aircraft industries.

    __Banks and Stock Exchanges

    Bank of Canada
    Canada's central bank.
    Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC)
    A federal Crown corporation wholly owned by the Government of Canada.
    Royal Bank of Canada
    Canadian multinational financial services company, the largest bank in Canada.

    Bourse de Montréal
    The Montréal Stock Exchange (MX), owned by Toronto- based TMX Group.
    TSX Group
    The Toronto Stock Exchange is in the Top10 of the world's largest stock exchanges.


    Canada Business Network
    Government Services for Canadian Businesses.

    Canadian Chamber of Commerce
    'The Voice of Canadian Business'.
    Canadian Economy Online
    Information on the Canadian economy, includes links to key Canadian economic indicators for the last ten years.
    Strategis - Canada's Business Information Site
    A guide to Canadian Business and Industries, Company Directories, Consumer Information.


    Air Canada
    Air Labrador
    First Air
    West Jet Air

    Coach Canada

    British Columbia Rail
    GO Transit
    The Rocky Mountaineer
    Ontario Northland
    VIA Rail Canada
    Parliament building on Parliament Hill, Ottawa
    Parliament building on Parliament Hill, Ottawa
    Photo courtesy City of Ottawa
    Castle Mountain in Banff National Park
    Castle Mountain within Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies.
    Image: ThartmannWiki

    Travel and Tour Consumer Information

    Destination Canada - Travel Guides

    Discover Canada: Canadian Rockies, Jasper National Park, Rocky Mountains, Columbia Icefield, Banff National Park, Moraine Lake, Niagara Falls, Niagara Parks Butterfly Conservatory, Lake Ontario, Toronto Islands, Nahanni National Park Reserve,
    hotels, accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, nature, biking, skiing, climbing, tours and much more.

    About Canada
    Canadian attractions, events and experiences. Extensive information on Canada for travelers, tourists and all who are interested in Canada.

    Travel Canada
    A comprehensive travel and tourism guide to Canada by the Canadian Tourism Commission.

    Destination Canada
    The official Business Site of the Canadian Tourism Commission.

    Waterton Glacier International Peace Park
    UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1932 Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) was combined with the Glacier National Park (Montana, United States) to form the world's first International Peace Park.

    The Virtual Reference Library - VRL
    Explore Ontario, present, past and future, through historic photographs, maps, digitized books, videos, and blog posts.

    City Guides
    The Official Website of Canadas Capital.
    Ottawa SmartCapital gateway
    Online services for all sectors of the City of Ottawa.

    Toronto's official website.

    The city of Montreal.

    Official Vancouver website.

    The Canadian Provinces and Territories
    more links and travel information on Canada and its Provinces and Territories: the ten provinces and three territories: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Yukon.

    __ Canada Reference

    Canadian Social Research Links
    A collection of Canadian and US related Social Research Links.

    UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Canada
    World Heritage Site L’anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
    Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland. The remains of an 11th-century Viking settlement are evidence of the first European presence in North America.
    World Heritage Site Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump
    One of the world's oldest, largest, and best preserved buffalo jumps, a buffalo jump is a cliff formation which Native Americans historically used in order to hunt and kill plains bison.
    World Heritage Site Historic District of Old Québec
    The only city in North American that has preserved its ramparts, together with its numerous bastions, gates and defensive works which still surround Old Québec.

    Montréal skyline from the Old Port
    Montréal skyline from the Old Port
    Photo: © Tourisme Montréal, Stéphan Poulin

    Education, Science & Research

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada
    Up-to-date information on Canadian higher education.
    Canadian Communities Atlas Project
    An Internet based network of Community Atlases that will be accessible to schools and the world.

    Canadian Virtual University - Université Virtuelle Canadienne
    A partnership of universities across Canada, committed to delivering university-level programs that can be completed from anywhere in the country or beyond.

    Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences
    HSSFC promotes teaching, research, and scholarship in the humanities and social sciences.
    Study in Canada
    Informational site on educational studies in Canada.

    Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
    Social sciences and humanities.

    Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS)
    Canada from space - plus a remote sensing tutorial.
    Canadian Space Agency
    Be prepared for the future.
    The Royal Canadian Geographical Society
    Société géographique royale du Canada.
    National Museum of Science and Technology
    National Research Council
    Canada's premier science and technology research organization.
    The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
    The national instrument for making strategic investments in Canada's capability in science and technology.
    Ontario Science Centre

    Environment & Nature

    Environment Canada's Green Lane
    Environment Canada's Internet resource for weather and environmental information. The Green Lane TM helps connect Canadians, exchange information and share knowledge for environmental decision-making.

    Canadian Biodiversity
    Canadian Biodiversity Information Network
    Official information site of Biodiversity in Canada.
    The Canadian Biodiversity Web Site
    Site about biodiversity and especially Canada's biodiversity.

    Canadian landscapes and landforms
    Parks Canada
    A guide to Canadian National Historic Sites and National Parks.
    Canadian Landscapes
    A great collection of photos of Canadian landscapes and landforms.

    Nature Conservation
    Nature Canada
    Site of Nature Canada, one of Canada's leading conservation groups.

    Canadian Waters
    Web site about Canada’s oceans and fish habitat by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

    Canadian Wildlife Federation
    The Hinterland Who's Who - Canadian Wildlife Service
    Created in the early 1960s to interest the public in wildlife conservation, now online.

    Canadian Museum of Nature
    More than a natural history museum.
    Natural Resources Canada
    Government information about Energy Sources and Distribution, Mining, Forestry in Canada, and Climate Change.


    Library and Archives Canada
    Online access to resources, services and the collection of the Library and Archives Canada.

    Canadian History
    List of online resources about Canada's history by the Canadian Government.

    The History of Canada Online
    HCO is a browsable, searchable history textbook published by Northern Blue Publishing, with supporting resources, including image galleries and text libraries, timelines, quotations, learning activities and other features.

    Canadian Heritage Gallery
    A collection of historical Canadian pictures and photographs.

    Canada - A Country by Consent
    A Canadian history project.

    The Canadian Encyclopedia
    Canada's national encyclopedia.

    Canadian Heritage Information Network
    Gateway to museums, galleries, and heritage information.

    CBC Archives
    The site provides a timeline and radio and television clips from the archives of the CBC about Canada's newer history.

    The history of Canada
    Wikipedia articles about Canada's history, covering the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day.

    First Nations

    Assembly of First Nations - Assemblée des Premières Nations
    Canadian The national representative organization of the First Nations in Canada.

    Aboriginal Heritage
    Government information about Canada's First Nations and aboriginal heritage.

    Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
    Foundation to preserve and revitalize the language, culture, arts, spirituality, and traditions of the Anishinaabe people.

    American Indians online
    OWNO page about the First Nations of North America.


    Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
    Ojibwe Cultural Foundation
    Image: Plismo

    Sources and additional Information on New Zealand

    Amnesty International: Canada

    BBC Country Profile: Canada

    Commonwealth of Nations: Canada

    FAO: Canada

    GlobalEDGE: Canada

    The Heritage Foundation: Canada

    Human Rights Watch: Canada

    OEC: Canada

    Reporters Without Borders: Canada

    Wikipedia: Canada

    The World Factbook -- Canada
     Support UNICEF

    Other Countries of North America:
    Mexico | USA