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    ___ China, 中國

    Chengyang Wind and Rain Bridge
    Wind and Rain Bridge, Dong Village near Sanjiang, Guilin region.
    Image: kk - nationsonline.org
    Flag of China
    Flag of China
    Location map of China. Where in the world is China?
    Location map of China
    Destination China, a virtual guide to the Middle Kingdom, the most populated country on earth, which in turn is also a controversial nation.

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is a sovereign state in East Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea. China is bordered by 14 countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Vietnam. Furthermore it shares maritime borders with Brunei, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan.

    China occupies an area of 9,598,094 km2, making it the second largest Asian country (after the Asian part of Russia) and the 4th largest country in the world, it is slightly smaller than the USA.

    Of China's population of 1,367 million people (2015) are 91.5% Han people, the remaining 8.5 % are 'ethnic minorities', after all still 114 million people. Larger ethnic minorities are Zhuang, Manchu, Uyghur, Hui, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Mongols, and Tibetans.

    China's capital city is Beijing, its largest city is Shanghai. Official language is Mandarin, other spoken languages are Wu (Shanghainese), Yue (Cantonese), Min (Minnan, Mindong, others), Xiang, Gan, Hakka, and various Mandarin dialects and Patuá (a Portuguese creole).

    China related countries and regions: Hong Kong (SAR), Macau (SAR), Taiwan (the P.R.C. considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province), Tibet (TAR) (Province Xizang - Under Sovereignty of China)

    People's Republic of China | Zhong Guo

    Country Profile

    Zhong Guo - China
    Zhong Guo (China, the middle Kingdom)
    in traditional Chinese Characters

    Official Name:
    Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
    local short form: Zhong Guo
    int'l short form: China
    (traditional Chinese: 中國; simplified Chinese: 中國; Pinyin: Zhōngguó
    int'l long form: People's Republic of China
    abbreviation: P.R.C. (People's Republic of China)

    ISO Country Code: cn, chn

    Actual Time: Wed-Nov-11  20:28
    Local Time = UTC +8h
    (China extends across five times zones, but the country uses a single time zone.)

    Country Calling Code: +86

    Capital City: Beijing
    (Municipality population 19,6 million)

    Other major Cities:
    Shanghai (municipality population 23 million),
    Tianjin (municipality population 13 million), Hong Kong ((urban population 6.8 million), Wuhan (urban population 4.4 million), Guangzhou (Canton, urban population 4.1 million), Shenyang (urban population 4 million), Chongqing (municipality population 28.8 million), Harbin (Ha'erbin, urban population 2.6 million), Chengdu (urban population 2.3 million); (population figures 2011).

    China's 20 most populated cities

    Type: Communist party-led state
    Constitution: 4 December 1982.
    Head of state: President Xi Jinping
    Independence: Unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC;
    Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by a republic on 12 February 1912;
    People's Republic established 1 October 1949.

    Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
    Total area: 9.6 million km² (about 3.7 million sq. mi.), third largest country in the world, slightly smaller than the US and almost as large as the combined nations of Europe.
    Terrain: Plains, deltas, and hills in east; mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west.

    Climate: From tropical in south to subarctic in north.

    Nationality: Chinese (singular and plural).
    Population: 1,367 million people (2015).
    GNI per capita PPP: $ 6193 (year)
    Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.6%; beside the Han population China recognizes fifty-five minority nationalities which comprise 8.4 percent of China's total population among them are: Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uygur, Yi, Mongolian, Tibetan, Buyi, Korean and other nationalities.
    Religions: Officially atheist; Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity.
    Language: PuTongHua (Mandarin), Wu (spoken in Shanghai), Yue (Cantonese) plus other dialects like Min, Hakka (Kejia), Gan and Xiang.
    Chinese is spoken by more people than any other language in the world.
    Literacy: 81%

    Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's largest hydropower potential.

    Agriculture products: Rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish.

    Industries: Iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications.

    Exports partners: USA 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015)

    Imports partners: South Korea 10.9%, USA 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015)

    Currency: Yuan Renminbi (CNY)

    China in Figures
    China key statistical data.

    For centuries China has stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences.

    But in the first half of the 20th century, China was beset by major famines, civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people.

    After 1978, Mao's successor DENG Xiaoping gradually introduced market-oriented reforms and decentralized economic decision making. Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the world's second largest GDP. Political controls remain tight even while economic controls continue to weaken.
    (Source: CIA - The World Factbook)
    Great Hall of People and Tiananmen Square, Beijing
    The Great Hall of the People, the state building is located at the western edge of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, it serves for legislative and ceremonial activities by the Chinese government and the ruling Communist Party.
    Image: ZhengZhou

    Political system
    The government system of China is that of a communist state since 1949, run by the ruling political party, the Communist Party of China (CPC), the biggest party in the country. Chief of state is the President, the top leader of China, head of the party, and the commander-in-chief of the military, he also represents China in foreign relations. The President and the Vice-President are elected by the National People's Congress. Head of government is the premier, officialy the Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, he is the leader of the State Council of China, the highest rank in the Civil Service.

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    Official Sites of China

    General Office, National Committee, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC)
    Official site of the General Office of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. (in Chinese)

    Government of China
    The State Council of the People's Republic of China.

    China National Space Administration
    China's long way to space.

    China Internet Information Center
    The Official site of the China Information Center, a web portal authorized by the People's Republic of China. China news, weather, business, travel, language courses, archives and more.

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China
    Official site of China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the UN
    China is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.
    Chinese Embassy in the United Kingdom
    Embassy of China in the UK.
    Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the USA
    Washington D.C.
    China Visa
    A guide to apply a visa to China (USA) for other countries see:
    China's Missions Overseas
    Diplomatic Missions of China Abroad.

    China Statistical Information Network
    Mainland China in Figures.
    Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong
    Hong Kong statistics.

    China Meteorological Bureau
    Weather in China.


    Administrative Map of China
    Political Map of China's Administrative Divisions.
    Maps of China
    China Country and City Maps.

    Google Earth Google Earth China
    Searchable map and satellite view of China.

    Google Earth Google Earth Forbidden City, Beijing
    Searchable map and satellite view of the former imperial city with description of the buildings.
    Google Earth Google Earth Great Wall of China
    Searchable map and satellite view of the Chinese Wall.
    Google Earth Google Earth Shanghai
    Searchable map and satellite view of Shanghai.
    Google Earth Satellite View of Three Gorges Dam
    Searchable map and satellite view of Yangtze River and the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.

    Map of the South China Sea
    Map of Southeast Asia
    Map of the Southeast Asia region.
    profile Map of Asia
    Political map of Asia.

     NEW  Map of countries with confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus.


    China News

    China portal with news from China and Hongkong.
    China Daily
    China and world news.
    China Internet Information Center
    The Official China Information Center.
    People's Daily
    The official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CCCPC), People's Daily is the most authoritative newspaper in China.
    Shanghai Daily
    Premier English-language newspaper in Shanghai.
    Sing Tao Daily
    China News. (in Chinese)
    South China Morning Post
    SCMP.com - the online edition of South China Morning Post, a Hong Kong English-language newspaper.
    The Standard
    Greater China's Business Newspaper.
    The Chinese News Agency.

    China Central Television
    Now renamed to China Network Television (China Network Television), CCTV is the one of the most important TV stations in China.
    China Radio International
    CRI Online provides News and Information from and about China.

    International News on China
    BBC News China

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    Impression Liu Sanjie, Yangshuo
    Impression Liu Sanjie is a musical night light show, performed on the Li River in Yangshuo. The amazing light show is a creation of Zhang Yimou, also director and choreographer of the impressive opening ceremony for the 2008 Beijing Olympics.
    Image: kk nationsonline.org

    Arts & Culture

    Cai Guo-Qiang
    Fire works.
    Stockholm Challenge Award Chinese Archery
    Information about archery traditions from Asian Traditional Archery Research Network (ATARN).

    Chinese Customs and Traditions
    Explanation of Chinese customs, traditions and beliefs related to Chinese New Year (spring festival)
    and other lunar festivals and holidays.

    Arthub is a Shanghai based and Hong Kong registered not-for-profit platform devoted to contemporary art creation and diffusion.
    Chinese Propaganda Poster
    A site dedicated to the Chinese propaganda poster as they have been produced from 1949 till today.
    Lang Lang
    Lei Feng
    Page about the in China well known Cultural Revolution hero and soldier-model Lei Feng.
    New Chinese Art
    Portal to contemporary Chinese art.
    Red Gate Gallery
    More contemporary Chinese art.
    Zhong Guo Guo Jia Tu Shu Guan
    The National Library of China holds the largest collection of Chinese books in the world.


    Business & Economy

    Zhongguo Renmin Yinhang
    The People's Bank of China, the central bank of the People's Republic of China.

    Bank of China
    Established in 1912, Bank of China is the oldest bank in China.

    Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
    Shanghai Stock Exchange
    The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) was founded on Nov. 26th,1990 and in operation on Dec.19th the same year.
    Shenzhen Stock Exchange
    The Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE), established on December 1st 1990, is one of the two stock exchanges in mainland China.

    All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce (ACFIC)
    National organization with local branches in all provinces and autonomous regions.

    China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT)
    The largest institution for the promotion of foreign trade in China.

    China National Arts & Crafts Import & Export Group
    The most important importer and exporter of arts and crafts in china.

    Information of China Products.


    Major Airlines in China
    Air China
    Flagship airline of the People's Republic of China.
    China Eastern Airlines
    Shanghai based Airline; offers online booking and route plan.
    China Southern Airlines
    China's largest airline, based at Guangzhou's brand-new Baiyun International Airport.
    Hainan Airlines
    Largest privately owned air line in China, headquartered in Haikou, Hainan.
    Juneyao Airlines
    Juneyao operates domestic and international services from both Shanghai airports.
    Shanghai Airlines
    A subsidiary of China Eastern Airlines, based in Shanghai.

    Major Airports in China
    Beijing Capital International Airport
    Flight Info, Passengers Guides and more.
    Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport
    Number two of China's busiest airports.
    Shanghai International Airport
    Official website of Shanghai Airport Authority for Pudong Airport and Hongqiao Airport.
    Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport
    Airport of the 'Special Economic Zone' city Shenzhen, located immediately north of Hong Kong.
    Karst mountains at Li River, Guangxi
    China's famous karst mountains at Li River between Guilin and Yangshuo, this formation you will find depicted on any 20 Yuan bill.
    Image: kk nationsonline.org

    Travel and Tour Consumer Information

    Destination China - Travel and Tour Guides

    Discover China Mainland - China's top 10 leisure spots:
    Suzhou, Jiangsu province; Qinhuangdao, Hebei province; Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region; Huangshan, Anhui province; Yantai, Shandong province; Chengdu, Sichuan province; Lijiang, Yunnan province; Sanya, Hainan province; Qingdao, Shandong province; and Hangzhou in Zhejiang province.

    China related Sites
    China National Tourism Administration
    The Official China Tourism Website.

    China National Tourist Office New York
    China travel information USA provides travel and tourism information on China and offers city guides to various Chinese cities.
    China National Tourist Office, Toronto, Canada
    China travel information Canada.

    Local Tourism Administrations

    Guangdong Tourism Bureau
    Official website for all Peoples traveling to Guangdong.

    Guangxi Travel online
    Guangxi Travel online travel and tourism guide to Guangxi province by Guangxi Tourism Administration.

    Hainan International Tourism Destination.

    Hebei Government
    Hebei Government website with travel information.

    Hubei Tourism Bureau
    Hubei travel and tourism information. (in Chinese)

    Shandong Tourism Information website.

    Sichuan Tourism Bureau website.

    Tibet Tourism Bureau
    Online travel and tourism guide to Tibet.

    Yunnan and Greater Mekong Region
    Travel guide to Yunnan province and the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Zhejiang Online
    Official information site for Zhejiang.

    Other Travel related Sites
    China Today
    Information on the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.)
    Discover Yangtze
    Yangtze river cruises.

    City Guides

    Beijing Municipal Government
    Beijing's official site.
    eBeijing International
    A guide to living in Beijing for non residents, the website provides information in news, investment, employment, tourism, and regulations.
    Beijing Tourism Information
    The official Beijing travel and tourism site maintained by Beijing Municipal Bureau of Tourism.
    The Beijing Page
    A guide to China and Beijing by Yang Zhang.

    The official City of Shanghai site.
    Shanghai Tour
    The official Shanghai tourism guide.
    A guide to Shanghai.

    Terracotta warriors in Xi'an
    Terracotta warriors in Xi'an. Pit n°1 in the museum of Xi'an.
    Image: Robin Chen

    UNESCO World Heritage Sites in China

    World Heritage Site Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang
    The Forbidden City in Beijing was the seat for the Chinese emperors for over five centuries (1416-1911/12).

    World Heritage Site Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
    The famous terracotta warriors in Xi'an, Shaanxi province of China.

    World Heritage Site Mogao Caves
    500 Chinese Buddhist grottoes carved into the cliffs above the Dachuan River, the caves are famous for their 2,000 statues and wall paintings, for centuries they played a decisive role in artistic exchanges between China, Central Asia and India.

    World Heritage Site The Great Wall
    The Great Wall of China, starting in 220 B.C., under Qin Shi Huang, sections of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defence system against invasions from the north.


    Beijing University
    Peking University sometimes called Bei Da, is the National key university, the former "Metropolitan University" of the Qing Dynasty, opened in December 1898.
    China Education and Research Network
    Very comprehensive site by Ministry of Education about Education in China.
    Nan Kai University
    The former Nankai School changed 1919 to Private Nankai University, Tianjin.
    Northeastern University (NEU)
    Located in Shenyang of Liaoning Province, founded in 1923.
    Southeast University
    National Central University, founded 1902.
    Tianjin University
    First university in the history of modern Chinese education, founded 1895.
    Tsinghua University
    State key university, established 1911 as "Tsinghua Xue Tang", Beijing.
    Xiamen University
    Founded in 1921.

    Environment & Nature

    Center for Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge
    CBIK, a non-profit organization enables local groups in Southwest China to strengthen their evolving cultural traditions and generate innovative ways to improve their livelihoods and enhance biodiversity.
    China New Energy Network
    Information on new and renewable energy, with particular reference to China.
    China Clean Energy Program (CCEP)
    Natural Resources Defense Council program encouraging clean power, green buildings, and sustainable transportation. Includes research publications, progress reports, and photos.

    Cleaner Production in China
    Information on the government's strategy for cutting pollution. Covers legislation, policies, case studies and international co-operative projects, as well as the basic concepts and tools used.

    China Three Gorges Project
    Official website of the China Yangtze Three Gorges Project, until now the largest hydropower-complex project ever built in the world.



    Chinese character dictionary
    Chinese dictionary with various search functions includes a useful English/Chinese dictionary, output in images and unicode.
    This site answers your questions about viewing and using Chinese on computers, and has related explanations, links, and sample programs.
    Learning Chinese Online
    Essential list to sites needed to learn Chinese, provided by Tianwei Xie.
    Marjorie Chan's ChinaLinks
    Site with annotated links to over six hundred China, Chinese language and linguistics-related websites.

    Chinese dictionaries
    MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary
    The website is not just a dictionary, it offers various tools such as: flashcards, quizzes, text annotation, Chinese text input and more.

     On-line Chinese Tools
    Mandarintools is a comprehensive site assisting people in learning and using Chinese language.

    Chinese-English, English-Chinese online dictionary.

     Chinese Country Names
    List of Chinese Names for foreign countries in Simplified Chinese (unicode) and Pinyin spelling.

    pin=spell yin=sound. In 1979, the Chinese Government officially adopted the pinyin romanization scheme for spelling Chinese names and places in Roman letters, it replaces formerly used spellings like the Wade-Giles romanization system.

    A guide to the writing of Mandarin Chinese in romanization.
    Chinese Culture: Mandarin - A short course on the pinyin romanization system by Qi Journal.


    great site  Baidu
    Sophisticated Chinese language search engine.

    China WWW Virtual Library - Internet Guide for Chinese Studies
    Carefully selected and annotated links to internet sites that may be useful to anyone with some interest in "Greater China".

    Sources and additional Information on China

    BBC Country Profile: China

    GlobalEDGE: China

    The Heritage Foundation: China

    Human Rights Watch: China and Tibet

    Visions of China
    50 years of the People's Republic, a CNN in-depth special.

    OEC: China

    Wikipedia: China

    The World Factbook -- China
     Support UNICEF

    Special Administrative Regions of China:
    Hong Kong | Macau | Tibet

    Other Countries in Eastern Asia:
    Japan | Mongolia | North Korea | South Korea | Taiwan (ROC) | Vietnam

    Major Cities in Eastern Asia:
    Beijing, Busan, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Kobe, Kyoto, Kunming, Lhasa, Macao, Nagoya, Osaka, Pyongyang, Saigon, Seoul, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Taipei, Tianjin, Tokyo, Ulaanbaatar, Yokohama