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    Eilat by the Red Sea
    Eilat, Israel's southernmost city, is a busy port and a popular resort at the northern tip of the Red Sea.
    Image: israeltourism

    Location map of Israel. Where in the Middle East is Israel
    Location map of Israel

    Flag of Israel
    Flag of Israel

    Destination Israel, a Nations Online Country Profile of the only Jewish country in the world. The Jewish state is located in a region regarded by Jews, Christians, and Muslims as the biblical Holy Land.

    The triangular-shaped country is part of the Middle East with a coast-line at the Mediterranean Sea, its southern tip connects it to the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Israel borders Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories (West Bank and the Gaza Strip), it also shares maritime borders with Cyprus.

    The country covers an area of 22,072 km2, making it slightly larger than half the size of Denmark, or somewhat bigger than the US state of New Jersey.

    Israel's landscape features a populated coastal plain in the west, the sparsely inhabited Negev desert in the south, and the mountain ranges of the Galilee in the north, coastal Mount Carmel, and the basaltic plateau of the Golan. Situated in the Jordan Rift Valley is the Sea of Galilee, also known as the miraculous Lake of Gennesaret or Lake Tiberias, the world's lowest freshwater lake (-212 m (696 ft)). The Lower Jordan River connects the lake with the Dead Sea, the famous salt lake bordering Israel, the West Bank, and Jordan. The surface of the Dead Sea and its shores are 430.5 m (1,412 ft) below sea level, making it Earth's lowest elevation on dry land.

    Israel has a population of 9.15 million people (in 2020), spoken languages are Hebrew and Arabic. The largest and most populous city and designated capital of the country is Jerusalem. But Israel's sovereignty over Jerusalem is internationally disputed. The country's financial center is Tel Aviv, which is also home to almost all foreign diplomatic missions and embassies in Israel.


    State of Israel | ?????
    Yisrael, ?????

    The Name of Israel in Hebrew Character

    Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs.
    Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides.
    Israel took control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the 1967 war and subsequently administered those territories through military authorities.

    On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai according to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved on the 26 October 1994 in the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace.

    In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations are being conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives (from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip) and Israel and Syria, to achieve a permanent settlement.

    On 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. Israel withdrew from Gaza in 2005.
    (Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

    related countries: Germany, United Kingdom, United States of America



    Country Profile

    Official Name:
    Medinat Yisra'el
    short form: Yisra'el
    int'l long form: State of Israel
    int'l short form: Israel

    ISO Country Code: IL, ISR

    Actual Time: Thu-Nov-19  13:04
    Local Time = UTC +2h
    Daylight Saving Time (DST) April - Oktober (UTC +3).

    Country Calling Code: +972

    ...show more

    Official Sites of Israel

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    Knesset building in Jerusalem
    The Knesset building in Jerusalem, seen from the Israel Museum. The building houses the Knesset, Israel's parliament, the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
    Image: Beny Shlevich

    Political system

    Israel's government system is based on parliamentary democracy with a multi-party system, consisting of a legislative, an executive and a judicial branch. Head of State is the president of Israel; the position has limited and largely ceremonial duties.

    Head of Government (cabinet of ministers) is the Prime Minister. Executive power is exercised by the government.

    Legislative power is vested in the Knesset (assembly). Israel does not have a constitution; the political system is based on the main principles set out in eleven Basic Laws.

    Benjamin Netanyahu and U.S. President Donald Trump
    Brothers in Arms.
    Photo by Haim Zach; Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    At the moment, Israel has no government.

    State of Israel
    Israel's government website.

    The Israeli Parliament is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.

    The Prime Minister
    Israel's Prime Ministers office.

    Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Basic information about Israel and its people, offering material on the Israeli government and its policies.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations
    Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations.

    Embassy of Israel
    USA, Washington D.C.

    Israeli diplomatic missions abroad
    List of Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad.

    Foreign Missions In Israel
    List of diplomatic missions in Israel.

    Requirements for a Visa
    Consular information for travellers.

    The Geneva Accord
    Text of the "unofficial" peace agreement of the Geneva Initiative drafted by moderate Israeli and Palestinian leaders to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Central Bureau of Statistics
    Statistical Israel.

    Israel Meteorological Service
    IMS provides meteorological information for Israel.
    Israel Weather
    Israel Weather with seven days forecast. (in English and Hebrew)



    Maps of Israel

    Israel Map
    Map of Israel (click map to enlarge)
    Image: ? nationsonline.org


    Map of Israel
    Political Map of Israel.

    Map of the Sinai Peninsula
    The Sinai Peninsula on a map.

    Map of the Arabian Peninsula
    The map shows countries of the Arabian Peninsula.

    Map of the Mediterranean Region
    Map of the Mediterranean Sea with bordering countries.

    profile Map of Western Asia
    Map of South Western Asia and the Middle East region.

    Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
    Political Map of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Middle East.

    Google Earth Google Earth Israel
    Map and satellite view of Israel.
    Google Earth Google Earth Jerusalem
    Map and satellite view of Jerusalem.
    Google Earth Google Earth Tel Aviv
    Map and satellite view of Tel Aviv.

    Google Earth Google Earth Temple Mount
    Annotated satellite view of Jerusalem's Temple Mount/Noble Sanctuary.

    More Maps of Israel
    Israeli Security Barrier
    Wikipedia article with maps, about the Israeli Security Fence, also known as the Israeli West Bank barrier.

    Israeli settlement
    Maps of Israeli settlements built on Israeli-occupied territories in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

    Historical maps of Palestine/Israel
    Six small maps: From Palestine in Biblical Times until now.

    More Maps of Israel
    Perry-Casta?eda Library Map Collection with maps of Israel.


    News from Israel

    Israeli newspapers, Newsstand

    Jewish Telegraphic Agency
    JTA is an international Jewish news agency.

    Online News from Israel

    Arutz Sheva
    Israel National News.
    Israeli business paper in English.
    Daily Newspaper - English Internet Edition.
    Israel Hayom
    National and international news.
    Jerusalem Post
    The Jerusalem Post Daily Internet Edition.
    The Jewish Chronicle
    London-based Jewish weekly newspaper.
    A news portal for Israel and the Middle East.
    Times of Israel
    English-language online newspaper.
    English language online outlet for Yedioth Ahronot.

    News in Hebrew
    Tel Aviv-based Israeli daily.
    Tel Aviv-based daily.
    Yediot Aharonot
    Tel Aviv-based Israeli daily newspaper.

    International News sources
    AP News Israel

    BBC News
    Israel Country Profile.

    The Guardian (UK) - Israel and the Middle East


    Arts & Culture of Israel

    Temple Mount and Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, Israel
    Temple Mount and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. The famous shrine was built by caliph ?Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān in the late 7th century. It is the oldest existing Islamic monument. The Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam, is believed to have ascended into heaven from the site. In Jewish tradition it was here (at Mount Moriah) that Abraham, the first Hebrew patriarch, has prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on a sacrificial altar.
    Image: Martin Furtschegger

    Arts & Culture

    Breaking the Ice
    Extreme Peace Mission, an Israeli-Palestinian expedition to Antarctica.

    Design Museum Holon
    The first museum in Israel dedicated to design.

    The Israel Museum
    Encyclopedic museum of art and archeology, Jerusalem.

    Israel National Museum of Science, Technology, and Space
    Madatech is a science and technology museum in Haifa.

    The Jerusalem Archaeological Park
    5000 years of history.

    The Jewish Virtual Library
    Most comprehensive online Jewish encyclopedia in the world, covering everything from anti-Semitism to Zionism.

    Kibbutz Movement
    Official website of Israel's egalitarian communities.

    Mishkan Museum of Art, Ein Harod
    One of the first art museums founded in Israel, located about 25 km south of Nazareth.

    Tel Aviv Museum of Art
    A comprehensive collection of classical and contemporary art.

    Umm el-Fahem Museum of Contemporary Art
    The first Arab museum of contemporary art in Israel.

    Yad Vashem
    The World Holocaust Remembrance Center in Jerusalem.



    Business & Economy of Israel

    Port of Ashdod, Mediterranean Sea
    The Port of Ashdod is a port at the Mediterranean Sea, about 40 kilometers south of Tel Aviv; it is one of Israel's two main cargo ports.
    Image: Amos Meron

    Israel's economy
    According to official sources, Israel is one of the most resilient and technologically-advanced market economies in the world. Its skilled workforce and concentration of venture capital allow the country to lead in innovative industries such as high-tech, cleantech, and the life sciences. [1]
    Offshore gas discoveries in the Mediterranean place Israel at the center of a potential regional natural gas market.

    Bank of Israel
    The Central Bank of Israel was established in 1954.

    Federation of Israeli Chambers of Commerce (FICC)
    Business Opportunities from Israel.

    Israel Export Institute
    Information for doing business with Israel.

    Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE)
    The Bursa is Israel's only public stock exchange.

    Israel's Top 10 Companies
    List of major companies in Israel.


    El Al Israel Airlines Ltd.
    Israel's national airline.

    Israel Airports Authority
    Official website of Israel's airport authority, the public agency is responsible for Israel's main airports.

    Israel Port Authority
    The Israel Ports Development and Assets Company Ltd. (IPC) Ltd. is responsible for the development of Israel's three commercial seaports in Haifa, Ashdod, and Eilat.

    Israel Railways
    Israel Railways is the state-owned railway company maintaining all inter-city, commuter, and freight rail transport in the country.



    Tourism in Israel

    Garden of Gethsemane seen from Mount of Olives,  Jerusalem
    The Garden of Gethsemane, seen from Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. According to the New Testament, this was the place where Jesus prayed, and his disciples slept the night before his "death" by crucifixion.
    Image: Koosg

    Destination Israel - Travel and Tour Guides


    Discover Israel:
    Cities: Jerusalem (Temple Mount), Tel Aviv (a major city on the Mediterranean coast, Jaffa Port), Haifa (port city at Mount Carmel, Hanging Gardens), Eilat (Coral Beach Nature Reserve), Old City of Acre (historic walled port-city from the Phoenician period), Masada
    Lakes: Sea of Galilee (or Lake of Gennesaret, the lake Jesus walked on, the lowest freshwater lake on Earth), Dead Sea (the lowest saltwater lake on Earth), Beit Shean National Park (Roman theater)

    Find accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tours, and much more.

    Israel's official tourism web site.

    Israel Ministry of Tourism
    Israel's even more official tourism web site.

    Dead Sea
    Guide to the largest "Natural Spa" in the world.

    The Noble Sanctuary
    A tour guide to the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock.

    Western Galilee Tourist Guide
    A travel and tourism guide to the Galilee region. (in Hebrew)

    The old port of Jaffa with Tel Aviv in the background.
    The old port of Jaffa with Tel Aviv in the background.
    Image: Noam.armonn

    City Guides

    The Municipality of Jerusalem.
    Jerusalem Tourism
    Official tourism information for Jerusalem.
    Municipality of Haifa.
    Visit Haifa
    Haifa official tourism information.
    Nazareth city guide.
    Tel Aviv
    Tel Aviv-Jaffa official.

    Necropolis of Bet She'arim, Israel
    The Necropolis of Bet She'arim, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, consists of a series of catacombs. In the 2nd century AD the catacombs were the primary Jewish burial place outside Jerusalem; the image is from Catacomb 4.
    Image: ? Tsvika Tsuk

    UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Israel
    There are nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Israel (see the List)

    World Heritage Site Old City of Acre
    Acre is a historic walled port-city with continuous settlement from the time of the Phoenicians. Today's city is characteristic of a fortified town from the Ottoman 18th and 19th centuries with typical urban components such as a citadel, mosques, caravanserais, and baths.

    World Heritage Site Incense Route - Desert Cities in the Negev
    The four Nabatean cities of Haluza, Mamshit, Avdat, and Shivta in the Negev Desert were located along important trade routes for incense and myrrh from southern Arabia. The towns had buildings such as fortresses and caravanserais, and they cultivated the landscape with sophisticated irrigation systems. The sites served as a stopover for the main trade route from Petra, the capital of the Nabatean Empire in Jordan, to Mediterranean ports.

    World Heritage Site Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba
    Archaeological sites of historic settlement mounds, known as tels. Megiddo, Hazor, and Beer Sheba in southern Israel are representative of tels that contain substantial remains of settlements with biblical connections associated with events portrayed in the bible.

    World Heritage Site Bahá'i Holy Places in Haifa and the Western Galilee
    The Bahá'i Holy Places in Haifa and Western Galilee were inscribed for their spiritual meaning and the testimony they bear to the strong tradition of pilgrimage in the Bahá'i faith. The property includes the two most holy places in the Bahá'í religion associated with the founders, the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh in Acre and the Shrine of the Báb in Haifa.


    Education in Israel

    Ben Gurion University of the Negev in Beersheba
    Ben Gurion University of the Negev in Beersheba.
    Image: David Saranga; Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    Israel Science and Technology Homepage
    National database and directory of science and technology-related sites in Israel. The site provides links to Israel education institutions.

    Al-Quds University
    Palestinian university with campuses in Jerusalem, Abu Dis, and al-Bireh.

    Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
    Internationally recognized institution of higher learning, established in 1970. The university has five campuses, located in Beersheba, Sde Boker, and Eilat.

    Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII)
    The GII was founded in 1957; it serves the Oil and Gas, Mines and Minerals, Sub-Surface Engineering, and Homeland Security industries.

    Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Well established research and teaching institution.

    Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
    The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities acts as a national focal point for Israeli scholarships in both the natural sciences and the humanities.

    Israel's oldest and premier institute of science and technology.

    Tel-Aviv University
    Israel's largest university and the biggest Jewish university in the world.

    University of Haifa
    Liberal arts university in northern Israel.

    Weizmann Institute
    One of the world's top-ranking multidisciplinary research institutions.



    Environment & Nature

    Gan HaShlosha National Park, Israel
    Gan HaShlosha National Park is located near the Sea of Galilee between the kibbutzim Beit Alfa and Nir David; it has naturally warm springs where visitors can swim all year.
    Image: Zairon

    Several factors influence the ecological balance in Israel, the small size of the country, a high population density due to immigration, and significant natural growth, which, together with a semi-arid climate, lead to a negative water balance. There is a lack of water in Israel, and therefore there is an overpumping, resulting in depletion of water resources, wells become salty, and the country's water sources become polluted.

    Government agencies
    Ministry of Environmental Protection
    Information on the ministry's activities, including prevention of air, land, and water pollution, protection of biodiversity, animal rights, and resources, hazardous materials, and more.

    Other organizations

    Jewish National Fund
    Theodor Herzl initiated JNF (Keren Kayemeth LeIsrael) and founded in 1901 in Basel, Switzerland, to buy and develop land for Jewish settlement in then Ottoman Palestine. By 2007, it owned 13% of the total land in Israel. The organization planted trees, established parks, built dams and reservoirs, and developed more than 1,000 km2 of land.

    Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel
    SPNI works to protect and preserve the biodiversity of the land of Israel through environmental activism, education, and eco-tourism.

    National Parks
    Israel Nature & National Parks Protection Authority
    Official site with information about Israel's national parks and nature reserves.


    Israel History

    Masada in the Judaean Desert
    Aerial view of Masada in the Judaean Desert, an ancient fortification in the Southern District of Israel situated on top of an isolated rock plateau. Herod the Great 'King of Judea' built palaces for himself on the mountain and fortified his residence between 37 and 31 BCE. Today Masada official website is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    Image: Andrew Shiva

    The region of what is today the State of Israel is known as the Southern Levant. The area that includes parts of Sinai, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan has a long history and is one of the regions of the world most intensively investigated by archaeologists. It is considered likely to be the first place that both early hominins and modern humans colonized outside of Africa.

    History of Israel
    Events in Israel's History, a presentation by the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    Israels History
    From ancient to modern Jewish history by "The Jewish Virtual Library."
    Jewish National and University Library
    Collected materials of all types which reflect or represent the history of the Jewish people.

    Dead Sea Scrolls - Qumran
    The Dead Sea scrolls are a collection of Hebrew and Aramaic manuscripts discovered in pottery storage jars in caves near Qumran in the Judaean Desert, between 1947 and 1956.

    The Dead Sea Scrolls
    The manuscripts at the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library.

    The Dead Sea Scrolls Project
    The Dead Sea Scrolls Project was established by the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

    Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls
    Established in 1995 as part of the Institute for Jewish Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

    Scrolls From the Dead Sea
    The Library of Congress exhibition describes the historical context of the scriptures and the Qumran community from which they might have come.

    Holocaust (International sources)
    Documentary Resources on the Nazi Genocide and its Denial
    The Holocaust History Project
    Archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial.
    Holocaust Remembrance
    Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs collection of articles and documentations about Holocaust and Antisemitism.
    Shoah Foundation
    Steven Spielberg's Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation.
    Yad Vashem
    The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Jerusalem.

    Israeli-Arab Conflict
    Arab–Israeli peace projects
    Wikipedia list of projects which promote peace and understanding between the Arab League and Israel in different spheres.
    The only joint Palestinian-Israeli public policy think-tank in the world.
    Institute for Palestine Studies
    Promoting research, analysis, and documentation on the Arab-Israeli conflict and its peaceful resolution.
    The Origin of the Palestine-Israel Conflict
    The search for an equitable solution must come to grips with the root cause of the conflict.
    History of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
    Wikipedia article about the background of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    Judaism and Jewish Issues
    See the world from a (Orthodox) Jewish perspective.
    The Jewish Universe
    Arutz Sheva's index of Jewish related sites.


    Additional Information


    The Portal Directory to the Jewish World, established in 1994.

    Sources and additional Information on Israel

    Amnesty International: Israel

    BBC Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories

    FAO: Israel

    Freedom House: Israel

    globalEDGE: Israel

    Human Rights Watch: Israel/Palestine

    Library of Congress Country Studies: Israel

    Middle East Studies: Israel

    OEC: Israel

    Reporters Without Borders: Israel

    UN Information System on the Question of Palestine
    Collection of full-text documents relevant to the question of Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East since 1946.

    Wikipedia: Israel

    The World Factbook -- Israel



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    Sharm El Sheikh, Suez, Tehran, Tel Aviv

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