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    Sunrise on Jebel Akhdar, Al Hajar mountain range in Oman
    Sunrise on Jebel Akhdar. The high plateau's amazing landscape features a labyrinth of wadis (valleys) and is part of Oman's coastal Hajar mountain range (Oman Mountains).
    Image: Robert Haandrikman

    Location map of Oman. Where in the world is Oman?
    Location map of Oman

    National Flag of Oman
    Flag of Oman
    Destination Oman, a Nations Online country profile of the Sultanate in the Middle East.

    Oman is located on the southeastern edge of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman; at the Musandam Peninsula in the north of the country, it borders the Strait of Hormuz and the Persian Gulf. Oman shares land borders with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, and it shares maritime borders with Iran and Pakistan.

    The oldest independent state in the Arab world was a sultanate known as Muscat and Oman until 1970. The country was the most influential power in the region during the 19th century; it controlled Zanzibar and other territories. Since the late 19th century, it has had strong links with Britain.

    Oman covers an area of 309,500 km2, making it slightly smaller than Poland, or about twice the size of the US state of Georgia.

    The country offers a variety of beautiful topographical features. There are valleys between rugged mountain ranges with terraced orchards where pomegranates, apricots, and roses grow, and extensive stretches of a vast plain with gravel desert interspersed with wadis and large pools of water in the middle. Oman's main cities line up neatly along the coast.

    Today the country has a population of 4.45 million people (in 2020), of whom 61% (2.7 million) are Omanis. The capital and largest city is Muscat (pop. 300,000). Spoken language is Arabic (official). The majority of Oman's population is (Ibadi) Muslim.


    What is Oman known for?

    Oman is known for Arabian horses, dromedaries, wild asses, green turtles, the Oryx antelope (the national animal), frankincense trees, and date palms. Oman is famous for its ancient aflaj oases irrigation system, terraced orchards (Jebel Akhdar), adobe fortresses, lots of mosques, wadis (stream valleys), dhows (traditional Arabian sailing ships), meteorites, and Al Said, the world's third-largest yacht, owned by the Sultan.
    The country's staple food is chicken, fish, and lamb (no pork, please) and coffee.
    Sultanate of Oman | Saltanat Uman |


    Oman lies at the eastern corner of the Arabian peninsula. The Emirates of Sharjah and Fujairah (UAE) separate the main part of Oman from the northernmost part of the state, a peninsula (Musandam) extending into the Strait of Hormuz.

    Historically Omanis were seafarers and traders who dominated regional commodity trading in the Indian Ocean, East Africa, and the Arabian Gulf. There were thus a succession of migrations which saw the growth of settlements along some parts of the East African coast.

    In 1970 QABOOS bin Said Al Said overthrew his father and ruled as Sultan until his death in 2020. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world and has preserved a long-standing political and military relationship with the United Kingdom.

    Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries. Oman became the main transit gateway to Qatar after several Persian Gulf countries cut sea routes to Qatar during the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis.

    (Source: Ministry of Information, Sultanate of Oman and CIA World Factbook)

    Oman is a member state of the League of Arab States

    Other Gulf States: Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar

    Related countries: Portugal, United Kingdom


    Country Profile

    Official Name:
    Saltanat Uman
    short form: Arabic: ???? ?Umān
    int'l long form: Sultanate of Oman
    int'l short form: Oman
    former: Muscat and Oman

    ISO Country Code: om, OMN

    Actual Time: Mon-Nov-23  18:03
    Local Time = UTC +4h

    Country Calling Code: +968

    Capital City: Muscat (pop. over 400 000)

    Other Cities:
    Dhofar, Salalah, Nizwa, Sohar, Sur.

    ...show more

    Official Sites of Oman

    Omani Royal Palace Qasr al-Alam in Muscat
    Entrance to the Royal Palace Qasr al-Alam in Muscat.
    Image: Edgar El

    Political system
    The system of government in Oman is a sultanate, an absolute Arab monarchy in which all legislative, executive, and judicial power is in the hands of the Sultan. The head of state and head of government is therefore the Sultan, who also acts as prime minister, head of the ministries of defense and finance and is chairman of the central bank. Judges are nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council and appointed by the Sultan.


    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    State Council - Sultanate of Oman
    The State Council is the upper house of the Council of Oman.

    The official Oman eGovernment Services Portal.

    Ministry of Information
    Portal site and official source of information on the Sultanate of Oman.

    Ministry of Heritage and Tourism
    Official site of the Ministry of Heritage and Tourism.

    Ministry of Commerce and Industry
    Official site of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    The Sultanate's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Cultural Office of the Embassy of Oman
    The Embassy of the Sultanate of Oman in Washington D.C.
    Oman Embassies
    Oman Embassies abroad.
    Foreign Missions in Oman
    Find foreign embassies in Oman.

    National Centre for Statistics and Information
    National Statistical Office of Oman.
    Oman Data Portal
    Oman by numbers.

    Oman in Figures
    Oman key statistical data.

    Oman Meteorological Department
    Oman weather conditions and forecasts.

    Pompeo Visit to HH Sultan Haitham bin Tariq in Muscat, Oman
    Pompeo Visit to HM Sultan Haitham bin Tariq at Al Barakah Palace in Seeb, Muscat, Oman.
    Image: ONA



    Maps of Oman

    Oman Map
    Map of Oman (click map to enlarge)
    Image: ? nationsonline.org


    Map of Oman
    Political Map of Oman.
    Google Earth Google Earth: Oman
    Searchable map/satellite view of Oman.
    Google Earth Google Earth: Muscat
    Searchable map/satellite view of Oman.

    Map of the Arabian Peninsula 
    Political Map of the Arabian Peninsula.
    Map of the Persian Gulf
    Political Map of the Persian Gulf.
    profile Map of Western Asia
    Map of Western Asia and the Middle East region.
    Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
    Political Map of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Middle East.
    profile Map of Asia
    Reference Map of Asia.


    News from Oman


    Online News from Oman

    According to Reporters Without Borders, censorship is still ubiquitous in this country ruled now by Sultan Haitham bin Tariq since his cousin's death, Qaboos Bin Said Al Said, after 45 years of reign. Freedom House states that the country's ruling on media is one of the most restrictive press and publications laws in the Arab world, ensures that the media remains censored and subdued.

    Omani News

    Al-Watan (Oman)
    Local News (Arabic)

    Al Shabiba
    Arabic daily.

    Muscat Daily
    Omani English daily.

    Oman Arabic Daily
    Oman News (in Arabic)

    Oman News Agency (ONA)
    Government news in English and Arabic.

    Oman Observer
    Oman's largest circulated English Newspaper.

    Times of Oman
    National and Middle East news.

    Public Authority for Radio and TV (PART)
    Sultanate of Oman TV and Radio in Arabic and English.

    International News sources
    Al Jazeera
    Oman related news.

    The Guardian (UK)
    Bahrain related news.


    Arts & Culture of Oman

    The landscaped gardens at the Royal Opera House in Muscat. The complex consists of a concert theater, an auditorium, and an art center.
    Image: Khalid AlBusaidi

    Arts & Culture

    Museums in Oman
    Information about the Oman Museum, National Museum, Omani - French Museum, and some other Omani museums.

    Royal Opera House Muscat
    Oman's premium address for musical art and culture.

    Muscat Festival
    The annual Muscat Festival is the country's largest cultural event, a showcase of Oman's Arabian art, culture, and tradition. The festival takes place from mid-January to mid-February.

    Traditional handicraft Oman
    Shipbuilding, pottery, jewelry, and other traditional Omani crafts.

    FACES is Oman's monthly lifestyle magazine.


    Business & Economy of Oman

    Redevelopment of the port of Muscat, Oman
    The redevelopment of Muscat's port will transform Port Sultan Qaboos to Oman's first address on the waterfront. The new port facilities are designed to support the government's efforts to diversify the economy by creating up to 5,000 direct jobs and accommodating up to 10,000 visitors per day.
    Image: Atkins

    Economy of Oman
    Oman's economy is primarily based on agriculture. Since the 1960s, the production and export of oil has been an essential income source for the country. In response to fluctuating oil prices, the government is trying to develop new income sources such as tourism, shipping and logistics, mining, manufacturing, and aquaculture.

    Notable companies of Oman

    Central Bank of Oman
    The principal currency authority in Oman (state-owned).

    National Bank of Oman
    NBO was the first local bank in Oman.

    Muscat Securities Market
    Oman's only stock exchange (state-owned).

    Bank Muscat
    Financial services company with the largest network in Oman with over 150 branches.

    Oman Arab Bank
    Commercial bank.

    Oman LNG
    Liquefied natural gas.

    OQ is a state-owned oil, gas, oxo chemicals, and plastic concern.

    Omantel is Oman's leading telecommunications company.

    Ooredoo Oman
    An Omani telecommunications company.

    Oman Oil Marketing Company
    OOMCO gas stations with shops.

    Petroleum Development Oman
    State-owned PDO is the leading oil and gas exploration and production company in the country.

    Shaksy Group
    An Omani-based privately owned holding company.

    Chamber of Commerce and Industry
    Oman Chamber of Commerce and Industry
    The OCCI represents the country's private economic sector.

    Oman Air
    The Omani national airline is based at Muscat International Airport in Seeb.

    Muscat International Airport

    Muscat International Airport (IATA: MCT) is Oman's main international airport, located about 11 km west of the capital.

    Port of Salalah
    The Port of Salalah is Oman's chief port.

    Sohar Port
    The port of Sohar in the governorate of Al Batinah North is a deep seaport with an adjacent free trade zone.

    National Ferries Company
    NFC operates trips from all the major ports in the Sultanate.

    Oman National Transport Company
    MWASALAT is the leading public transport company in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Pompeo Visit to HH Sultan Haitham bin Tariq in Muscat, Oman
    An Oman Air Boeing 737 heading for Muscat International Airport.
    Image: Kurush Pawar


    Tourism in Oman

    Muttrah Corniche in Muscat at dusk
    Muttrah Corniche in Muscat at dusk. Muttrah's long arched beach promenade is the country's old commercial center.
    Image: Andrew Moore

    Destination Oman - Travel and Tour Guides


    Discover Oman:
    Al Mansur Castle, Bahla Fort, Barka Castle, Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn, Al Jalali Fort, Muscat, Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Gulf of Oman, Wahiba Sands (Sharqiya), Ibra, Muttrah Corniche, Khareef Festival in Salalah, Muscat Festival, Misfat Al Abriyeen village, Jebal Shams mountain, Musandam peninsula, Sohar, Buraimi, Dhofar, Khasab fjords, Nizwa, Sur, Al-Hajar Mountains, Jabal al-Akhdar.

    Sultanate of Oman
    Comprehensive Oman travel and visitors information by the Ministry of Tourism.

    Oman Tourism
    Oman images by the Ministry of Tourism of the Sultanate at Flickr.

    Oman Magazine
    Persian Gulf lifestyle magazine.

    Omani woman in desert
    Omani woman in the desert.
    Image: E Eche

    Arabia Felix
    Comprehensive information about Yemen and Oman (German and English)

    Wikivoyage Oman
    Travel guide page from Wikivoyage about Oman.

    Al Bustan Palace
    Al Bustan Palace, a Ritz-Carlton 5-star hotel in Muscat.
    Grand Hyatt Muscat
    5-star hotel and resort in Muscat on the beach of Shatti al Qurum.
    Oman Resorts - Alila Jabal Akhdar
    Hotel in the Al Hajar Mountains 2000 m above sea level.

    City Guides
    The City of Muscat.
    Dhofar Municipality.
    Nizwa Net
    A guide to Oman and the oasis city of Nizwa.

    Al Jalali Fort in the harbor of Old Muscat, Oman
    The Portuguese built Al Jalali Fort in the harbor of Old Muscat. The fort was built in the 1580s to protect the port after Ottoman troops had already sacked Muscat twice.
    Image: Andries Oudshoorn



    UNESCO World Heritage Sites

    Fort Bahla, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the town of Bahla in Oman.
    Fort Bahla is one of several historic forts at the foot of the Jebel Akhdar highlands in Oman. Today Fort Bahla is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the most important cultural sights in the country.
    Image: Federico Lukkini

    UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Oman
    There are five UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Oman, and six sites are on the Tentative List (see the List)

    World Heritage Site Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman
    "Aflaj" or "Falaj" irrigation systems are an arrangement of waterways to irrigate homes, fields, and cropland. The site includes five ancient Aflaj irrigation systems and is representative of approximately 3,000 such systems still in operation in Oman.

    World Heritage Site Ancient City of Qalhat
    The ancient city of Qalhat was an Arabian port city on the Gulf of Oman. Between the 11th and 16th centuries AD, the urban settlement was an important trading hub in the wider Indian Ocean trade network, which throughout history played a vital role in the East-West exchange of goods, people, and knowledge.

    World Heritage Site Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn
    The sites of Bat, Al-Khutm, and Al-Ayn in the Al Dhahira region represent a unique ensemble of 4000 to 5000-year-old tomb monuments, towers, and settlement remains on the Arabian Peninsula.

    World Heritage Site Bahla Fort
    The fort and settlement of Bahla, an oasis surrounded by mud walls in the Omani desert at the foot of the Jebel Akhdar highlands, owes its prosperity to the Bani Nabhan (Nabahina) tribe, who ruled the central region of Oman and made Bahla their capital from the 12th to the end of the 15th century.

    World Heritage Site Land of Frankincense
    The frankincense trees of Wadi Dawkah, the remains of the caravan oasis of Shisr/Wubar, and the affiliated ports of Khor Rori (Sumhuram) and Al-Baleed illustrate the importance of the frankincense trade that flourished in this region over many centuries.

    A plaque in Khor Rori (Sumhuram), Oman, informs about the production and trade of frankincense.
    A plaque in Khor Rori (Sumhuram), Dhofar Governorate of Oman, informs about the production and trade of frankincense.
    Image: Juozas ?alna


    Education in Oman

    Sultan Qaboos University Mosque, Muscat
    Sultan Qaboos University Mosque.
    Image: Sultan Qaboos University

    Universities in Oman

    Dhofar University
    Dhofar University is a non-profit private higher education institution established in 2004.

    Nizwa University
    UoN was founded in 2004 in the country's historic former capital Nizwa as a faculty-managed non-profit private university.

    Sohar University
    Homepage of the first private university in the Sultanate, established in 2001 in Sohar, the capital and largest city of the Al Batinah North Governorate.

    Sultan Qaboos University
    SQU, located in Al Khoudh, Muscat, was the first university in Oman; it is the only public university in the Sultanate.

    German University of Technology
    GUtech is a private university in Halban (neer Seeb) in affiliation with RWTH Aachen University, Germany. 


    Environment & Nature

    Wahiba Sands desert (Sharqiya Sands)
    Sharqiya Sands, also known as Wahiba Sands, is a desert and the original homeland of the Bedouins in Oman.
    Image: Andries Oudshoorn

    Ministry of Regional Municipalities & Water Resources
    The Sultanate is striving for the enhancement of protection of the environment and conservation of its natural resources through control of development projects and preservation of biodiversity and many protection projects such as mangrove cultivation project, wild trees growing project, gazelle tagging project, coastal management projects, preparation of Oman's national conservation strategy and restrictions to visit nature reserves and protection of the environment in general.

    Environment Authority of Oman
    The authority strives to protect the environment and to conserve the country's natural resources.

    Environment Society of Oman
    The official website of the society for education and environmental awareness provides information about Oman's environmental problems and projects.

    Geological Society of Oman
    The society aims to promote the geological sciences in Oman and the development of its members through seminars, workshops, and excursions.

    Oman Water Society
    The goal of the Oman Water Society is to create awareness for the best water consumption.
    SustainableOman supports the Sustainable Development Goals of Oman.

    Wadi Bani Khalid in Ash Sharqiyah North Governorate
    Wadi Bani Khalid in the Ash Sharqiyah North Governorate.
    Image: hey tiffany!


    Oman History

    View of Maskatae (Muscat) in Arabien Engraving
    Illustration of Maskatae (Muscat) in Arabien.
    Engraving: Peeters Jacob, Flemish engraver (1637-1695)

    A kaleidoscope of history and legends
    A short introduction into the history of the country by the Omani Ministry of Heritage and Tourism.

    History of Oman
    Wikipedia: History of Oman.

    Oman - The early period - Britannica
    Article in the Encyclop?dia Britannica about different periods in the history of Oman.

    Oman profile - Timeline
    Historical timeline of Oman by the BBC.

    WWW-VL History Index - Oman History
    Index of various resources related to Oman's history.


    Additional Information

    Selected country profiles of Oman published by international organizations.


    Amnesty International: Oman
    Amnesty International is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

    BBC Country Profile: Oman
    Country profiles by the British public service broadcaster.

    BTI Transformation Index
    Oman Country Report 2020 by Bertelsmann Stiftung.

    Freedom House: Oman
    The U.S. government-funded non-profit organization whose goal is to promote liberal democracies worldwide.

    GlobalEDGE: Oman
    Oman ranking by the Global business knowledge portal.

    The Heritage Foundation: Oman
    The Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom.

    Human Rights Watch: Oman
    HRW conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

    OEC: Oman
    The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides the latest international trade data.

    Reporters Without Borders: Oman
    RSF (Reporters sans frontières) is an international NGO that defends and promotes media freedom.

    Wikipedia: Oman
    Wikipedia Oman page in many languages.

    Worldbank Data: Oman
    World Development Indicators database.

    The World Factbook -- Oman
    CIA World Factbook Oman Page. 


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