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    Wilanów Palace, Warsaw
    Wilanów Palace near Warsaw. The late 17th century Baroque palace was was built for King of Poland Jan III Sobieski, most famous for his victory over the Turks at the 1683 Battle of Vienna.
    Image: kk nationsonline.org
    Flag of Poland
    Flag of Poland
    Location map of Poland. Where in Europe is Poland?
    Location map of Poland
    A virtual guide to Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, a country in central Europe with a coastline on the Baltic Sea in north.

    Poland is bordered by Germany in west, the Czech Republic in south west, Slovakia in south, Ukraine in south east, Belarus in east and Lithuania and Russia in north east. The country shares maritime borders with Denmark and Sweden.

    Poland covers an area of 312,685 km2, making it slightly larger than Italy or slightly smaller than the US state of New Mexico.

    Poland has a population of 38.5 million (in 2015); official language is Polish. Largest city and capital is Warsaw.


    Republic of Poland | Rzeczpospolita Polska

    Country Profile

    Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" (Solidarno??) that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency.

    A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, boosting hopes for acceptance to the EU. Poland became a full member of the EU on 1 May 2004.


    Official Name:
    Rzeczpospolita Polska
    short form: Polska
    int'l long form: Republic of Poland
    int'l short form: Poland

    ISO Country Code: pl, POL

    Time Zone: Central European Time (CET)
    Local Time = UTC +1h (in summer +2h)
    Actual Time: Sat-Nov-7  01:43

    Country Calling Code: +48

    Capital City: Warsaw (Warszawa; pop. 1.7 million)

    Other Cities: Lodz (776 000), Krakow (758 000), Wroclaw (637 000), Poznan (573 000), Gdansk (460 000).

    Type: Republic.
    Constitution: approved by national referendum on 25 May 1997.

    Location: Central Europe, east of Germany.
    Area: 312,685 km² (120,727 sq. mi.)
    Terrain: Flat plain, except mountains along southern border.

    Climate: Temperate with both maritime and continental elements.

    Nationality: Noun--Pole(s). Adjective--Polish.
    Population: 38.5 million (2015)
    Ethnic groups: Polish 98%, German, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Lithuanian.
    Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Eastern Orthodox, Uniate, Protestant, Judaism.
    Languages: Polish.
    Literacy: 99%.

    Natural resources: Coal, copper, sulfur, natural gas, silver, lead, salt.

    Agriculture products: Grains, hogs, dairy, potatoes, horticulture, sugar beets, oilseed.

    Industries: Machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles.

    Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6%.

    Exports partners: Germany 27.1%, UK 6.8%, Czech Republic 6.6%, France 5.5%, Italy 4.8%, Netherlands 4.4% (2015)

    Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 15%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9%.

    Imports partners: Germany 27.6%, China 7.5%, Russia 7.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, Italy 5.2%, France 4.1% (2015)

    Currency: Zloty (PLN)

    Presidential Palace - Warsaw, Poland
    Presidential Palace in Warsaw with the equestrian statue of Prince Józef Poniatowski, the palace is the official seat of the Polish President.
    Image: kk nationsonline.org

    Political system
    Poland is a semi-presidential parliamentary republic with a representative democracy and a bicameral parliament which consists of a 460-member lower house (Sejm) and a 100-member Senate, together they form the National Assembly (Polish: Zgromadzenie Narodowe).
    Head of state is the President, he has the power to dissolve parliament in special cases. Head of government is the Prime Minister, who is the leader of the cabinet (Council of Ministers). Poland's legislative power is vested in the parliament.

    Official Sites of Poland

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    The official information portal of the Republic of Poland.

    President of the Republic of Poland
    Poland's President.

    Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland
    Chancellery of the Prime Minister.

    Poland's Parliament
    The lower chamber of the Parliament.
    The upper chamber of the Parliament.

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland.

    Poland.pl is the official information portal of the Republic of Poland.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Polish Missions Abroad
    Address list of Polish Missions Abroad.
    Foreign Embassies in Poland
    Address list of Foreign Embassies in Poland.

    Polska Statystyka Publiczna
    The Central Statistical Office of Poland.

    Instytut Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej (IMGW)
    Institute of Meteorology and Water Management.


    profile Map of Poland
    Political Map of Poland.
    profile Administrative Map of Poland Regions
    Map showing the administrative divisions of Poland.
    Google Earth Google Earth Poland (Polska)
    Searchable map/satellite view of Poland.
    Google Earth Google Earth Warsaw (Warszawa)
    Searchable map/satellite view of Poland's capital city.

    Map of Central and Eastern Europe
    Political map of Central and Eastern Europe.
    Map of the Baltic Sea Area
    Political map of the Baltic Sea region.
    Map of Europe
    Political Map of Europe.


    Poland News

    Gazeta Wyborcza
    National and international news (in Polish)
    Warsaw Business Journal
    Business and finance.
    The Warsaw Voice
    Polish and Central European Review.
    National and international news (in Polish).

    Poland portal site provides news in English.

    Polska Agencja Prasowa
    Polish Press Agency.

    TVP.PL - Telewizja Polska S.A.
    Polish television (in Polish)

    Bookmark/share this page

    Arts & Culture

    Portal website about Polish culture.

    Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849)
    Comprehensive Chopin website, created under the supervision of the Fryderyk Chopin Society, offers a great deal of information about the Poland born composer.

    Krzysztof Kieslowski
    Wikipedia page about the Polish Filmmaker.

    Konrad Korzeniowski - Joseph Conrad
    A chronology of Joseph Conrad's life and works.

    Joseph Conrad
    More information about Joseph Conrad, a Polish-born English novelist, by the Joseph Conrad Society (UK).
    Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelists.

    Poland portal site (in Polish)

    Poznan National Museum
    The museum is a national institution of culture and one of the largest museums in Poland. It comprise a collection of Polish and European art (Italian, Spanish, Dutch and German).

    National Museum Warsaw
    The museum is a national institution of culture, and one of the largest museums in Poland. It comprise a rich collection of ancient art (Egyptian, Greek, Roman), an extensive gallery of Polish painting since the 16th century and a collection of foreign painting (Italian, French, Dutch, German and Russian).

    Palace Izrael Poznanski in ?ód?, Poland
    Palace Izrael Poznanski in Lodz
    © MFA Poland

    Altarpiece of Veit Stoss in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków
    Altarpiece of Veit Stoss in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków
    Image: kk nationsonline.org  

    Warsaw Old Town Market Square
    Warsaw Old Town Market Square
    Image: kk nationsonline.org

    Business & Economy

    Poland's economy was the only one in the EU to avoid a recession through the 2008-09 economic downturn. While the Polish economy has performed well over the past five years, growth slowed in 2013 and 2014, in part due to the ongoing economic difficulties in the euro zone. But Poland's economic performance could improve if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system.

    Narodowy Bank Polski
    National Bank of Poland
    Warsaw Stock Exchange
    Official website of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.

    Polish Airlines.

    Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport
    Poland's busiest airport.

    Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA
    PKP Polish Railroad (Polish)
    PKP Intercity
    PKP Polish Intercity (Polish)
    The rail travel guide takes you through the basics of taking a train trip in Poland.
    Pieskowa Skala castle near Krakow, Poland
    Renaissance castle Pieskowa Skala near Krakow, built in the first half of the 14th century by King Casimir III the Great.
    Image: nationsonline.org

    Travel and Tour Consumer Information

    Destination Poland - Travel and Tour Guides

    Discover Poland: accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, hiking, climbing, cruising, diving, tours and much more.

    Polish Tourist Organization
    Website of the countrywide system of Internet tourist information and Poland's promotion, presented and managed by the Polish Tourist Organization.

    Informative Poland portal site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    Official site of Poland's capital city.
    The city of Gdansk the Polish maritime capital.
    The city of Krakow is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
    Poznan is one of the richest cities in historical monuments in Poland.
    Wroclaw (Breslau)
    Official website of the multicultural municipality, the former capital of Silesia.



    University of Gdansk
    Largest institute of higher education in the Pomeranian region.
    Uniwersytet Lodzki
    University of Lodz
    Uniwersytet Wroclawski
    University of Wroclaw, largest city in the West of Poland.
    Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Warsaw University, founded in 1816 is the biggest and most respected university in Poland.

    Environment & Nature

    Ministry of the Environment
    Website of the ministry.
    National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
    Official website of the fund.

    Poland's National Parks
    A guide to Poland's National Parks.

    Polish Society for the Protection of Birds
    Website of the society (in Polish)

    Polish Society of Wildlife Friends "pro Natura"
    Information about the activities of the society (in Polish).


    Tatra Mountains
    Tatra Mountains
    © MFA Poland


    State Archives Poland
    Poland's National Archives.

    Polish History
    The online project of the Polish History Museum in Warsaw provides information about Poland's history.
    The History of Poland
    Poland's history from the origins to Post War Poland.

    Site about the Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity" originally led by Lech Wa??sa, which has changed Poland.

    Polish History Index
    Index of sites related to Polish art and culture history.

    Museum of Mazovian Countryside
    Museum of Mazovian Countryside
    Image: MOs810


    Polish World
    Index - Internet Guide to Poland and Polonia.

    Sources and additional Information on Poland

    Amnesty International: Poland

    BBC Country Profile: Poland

    EU member countries: Poland

    FAO: Poland

    GlobalEDGE: Poland

    The Heritage Foundation: Poland

    Human Rights Watch: Poland

    OEC: Poland

    Poland : a country study

    Reporters Without Borders: Poland

    Wikipedia: Poland

    The World Factbook -- Poland
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